Test Bank for Social Work Social Welfare and American Society 8th Edition Philip Popple

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Test Bank for Social Work Social Welfare and American Society 8th Edition Philip Popple

Table Of Contents

Preface
Chapter1
Competing Perspectives on Social Welfare
Political Perspectives and Social Welfare
The Worldview of Conservatives, Liberals, and Radicals
Attitudes toward Change
Views of Human Nature
Views of Individual Behavior
Views of the Family
Views of the Social System
Views of Government and the Economic System
Political Perspectives in the Real World
Political Perspectives and Social Work Values
The Authors’ Perspective
Chapter 2
Social Welfare: Basic Concepts
Stigma and Social Welfare
Social Exclusion and Social Welfare
Descriptive Definitions of Social Welfare
Social Welfare as Nonmarket Economic Transfers
Social Welfare as Services to Meet Basic Needs
A Functional Definition of Social Welfare
Social Structure
Status and Role
Social Institutions
Family and Kinship
Government and Politics
Economics
Religion
Education
Dependence, Interdependence, and the Social Welfare Institution
Dependency and Opportunity
Institutional and Residual Conceptions of Social Welfare
Is the United States a Welfare State
A Classification of Social Welfare Services
Perspectives on Social Welfare
The Conservative Perspective
Noblesse Oblige
Enlightened Self-Interest
The Liberal Perspective
The Radical Perspective
Summary
Conclusion
Chapter 3
Social Work as a Profession
Social Work and Professionalism
Social Work’s Historical Development
State Charitable Institutions
The Charity Organization Society
The Social Settlement
A Closer LookJosephine Shaw Lowell:
Leader in the Charity Organization Society
A Closer LookMary Richmond: Pioneer in Social Casework
Social Work DestinationsHull House
A Closer LookLillian Wald, Graham
Taylor and Lugenia Burns Hope: Three
Settlement Leaders
A Closer LookGrace Abbott, Edith
Abbott and Sophonisba Breckinridge:
Partners in Social Change and Development of a Profession
Growth of a Profession
Diversity and Unification
A Closer Look George Haynes: Social Work
Education and the National Urban League
The Depression and the Development of Federal
Social Welfare Programs
A Closer Look Jane Hoey
Continued Professional Growth
Social Work Values and Philosophical Base
A Closer LookImportant Dates in
Social Work History
Social Work Ethics and Ethical Dilemmas
Updating a Professional Code of Ethics:
Interview with a Key Player
A Closer Look Excerpts from the 1996
Code of Ethics of the National Association
of Social Workers
Social Work Methods
A Closer LookSocial Work Roles
A Model of Social Work Practice
Practice Settings
Salaries and Job Opportunities
Social Work Education and Knowledge for Practice
Current Professional Issues
Social Work in the Larger Field of Social Welfare
Perspectives on Practice
Conclusion
Chapter 4
Generalist Social Work Practice
History and Development of Social Work Practice
The Evolution of Social Work Practice
Development of the Concept of Generalist Social Work
Generalist Practice
Definition
Skills
Relationship Between Generalist and Specialized Practice
Case Management: A Major Skill for Generalist Practitioners
Definitions
History
Skills
Institutional Framework
Advocacy
Practice Ethics and Ethical Dilemmas
Conclusion
Chapter 5
Responses to Human Diversity
Definition of the Problem
Definition of Terms
Dynamics of Intergroup Relations
Perspectives
The Conservative Perspective
The Liberal Perspective
The Radical Perspective
History of Intergroup Relations in the United States
Social Workers, Social Welfare Institutions, and the “New Immigration,”
Social Workers, Social Welfare Institutions and African Americans
A Closer LookThe Destruction of a Black Community in Tulsa Oklahoma
Social Workers, Social Welfare Institutions, and Women
Current Issues Regarding Social Welfare and Human Diversity
Multiculturalism
A Closer LookThe Experience of Having a Mixed Heritage
Immigration
Affirmative Action
Separatism or Integration?
Social Work Roles Related to Diversity
Social Work DestinationsDestinations to Enhance an Appreciation of Diversity
Chapter 6
Religion and Social Work
The Religious Roots of Social Welfare
Early Egyptian Roots
Jewish Roots
Christian Roots
Muslim Roots
The Religious Roots of Organized Social Work
Churches and the Charity Organization Society Movement
Churches and the Settlement House Movement
The Church and the Institutional Roots of Social Work
The Secularization of Social Work
The Secularization of Society
The Growth of Government Services
The New Left and the Student Movement of the 1960s and 1970s
The Reversal of Secularization?
Current Sectarian Services
Social Work and Religion–Uneasy Bedfellows
Should the Church Be Involved in Social Work and Social Welfare
Conservative Religion and Social Change
Social Work Values and Christian Values–Conflict or Consensus?
Conclusion
Chapter 7
Poverty: The Central Concept
Poverty: Major Issues and Common Terms
Rich Country, Poor Country
The Measurement of Economic Inequality
The Distribution of Income and Wealth in the United States
Trends in the Distribution of Wealth and Income
Perspectives on Inequality
Poverty–The Dark Side of Inequality
The Definition of Poverty
Absolute Definitions
The Official Poverty Line in the United States
Issues and Perspectives in Measuring and Defining Poverty
Is the Poverty Line Set at a Realistic Level?
How Should Noncash Benefits Be Counted?
Should Poverty Be Defined in Absolute or Relative Terms
Should the Poverty Line Be Based on Net Disposable Income?
Experimental Poverty Measures
Conclusion
Chapter8
The Nature and Causes of Poverty
Who Are the Poor?
Statistical Description of the Poverty Population
Region
Nativity
Family Type
The Feminization of Poverty
Different Types of Poverty
Three Levels of Poverty
Data on Different Types of Poverty and Poverty Patterns
Why Are the Poor Poor?
Poverty as the Result of Individual Characteristics
Genetic Inferiority
Poverty as a Result of Psychological Problems
The Human Capital Approach
Cultural Explanations of Poverty
Culture of Poverty
Cultural Deprivation
Critique of Cultural Explanations
Culture of Poverty Theory is Based on Methodologically Flawed Research
Culture Definitions Really Refer to the “Undeserving Poor”
Research Fails to Support Elements of Cultural Explanations
Alternative Explanations for the Lifeways of the Poor
Blaming the Victim
Structural Explanations of Poverty–Liberal Version
Poverty as a Vicious Circle
Does the Class System Reproduce Itself?
The Organization of the Economy
Racial, Sexual, and Age Discrimination
The Increasing Social Isolation of the Ghetto
A Psychological Structural Explanation
Critique of Liberal Structural Explanations
Structural Explanations of Poverty–Conservative Version
Critique of Conservative Explanations
Conclusion
Chapter9
The Development of Antipoverty Programs
Historical Perspective on Antipoverty Efforts
English Roots
Colonial Years and the Era of the American Revolution
Early Years of the Republic, 1781-1860
Ideas about the Causes of Poverty
The Growth of Indoor Relief
Outdoor Relief
Private Antipoverty Organizations
Government Antipoverty Efforts
Attitudes of the Nonpoor
Social Transformation, Reform, and Reaction, 1860-1930
Changing Attitudes toward the Poor
Private Antipoverty Efforts
Government Antipoverty Efforts
Private Domination of Social Welfare
Seeds of the Reluctant Welfare State, 1930-1940
Attitudes toward the Poor
The Return of Prosperity, 1940-1060
Reform and Reaction, 1960-1988
A New Era for Antipoverty Policy
The Development of Work Programs
The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
Welfare is Reformed–the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Program
Conclusion
Chapter 10
Child Welfare
Definition
Statistical Profile
Number of Children Involved
Race
Age
Trend
Dynamics
Individual Parent Factors
Family Factors
Environmental Factors
Additional Factors
Historical Perspective
The Emergence of Concern for Children
The Lengthening of Childhood
The Breakdown of the Ability of the Extended Family and the Church to Manage Child
Dependency
The Development of a Changed Conception of Children and Childhood
The Development of Child Welfare Services
The Development of Children’s Homes
The Idea of Foster Family Care
The Development of Protective Services
The Rediscovery of Child Abuse and Neglect
Current Issues and Trends
Emphasis on Permanency Planning
Emphasis on Family Preservation
Reaction to Family Preservation
Class Action Lawsuits on Behalf of Children in Foster Care
Separation of Investigation from Service
Perspectives
Conceptions of Appropriate Discipline
Conservative Perspective
Liberal Perspective
Analysis and Synthesis
The Causation of Maltreatment
Conservative Perspective
Liberal Perspective
Analysis and Synthesis
Rights of Children, Parents, and the Government
Conservative Perspective
Liberal Perspective
Radical Perspective
Analysis and Synthesis
Social Work Roles
Direct Services in Public Child Welfare
Intake, Screening, and Assessment
Supervision of Families with the Child at Home
Family Preservation Service
Recruitment and Supervision of Foster Homes
Adoption
Private Agencies
Conclusion
Chapter 11
Crime and Criminal Justice
Perspectives on Criminal Justice
The Conservative Perspective
Basic Beliefs
Major Issues
The Liberal Perspective
Basic Beliefs
Major Issues
The Radical Perspective
Basic Beliefs
Major Issues
Definition
Legal Definitions of Crime
In Whose Interest Is Criminal Law?
Crime as a Social Welfare Problem
The Punishment Approach
The Rehabilitation Approach
Statistical Profile
Problems with Crime Statistics
Patterns of Crime
Volume of Crime
Gender
Age
Race
Social Welfare and Crime
Juveniles
Adult Corrections
Dynamics
Control Theories
Biological Control Theories
Psychological Control Theories
Social Control Theory
Neoclassical Control Theory
Summary of Control Theories
Cultural Theories
Cultural Deviance
Differential Association Theory
Strain Theory
Summary of Control Theories
Social Victim Theories
Labeling Theory
Radical Criminology
A Brief History of Criminal Justice
Prisons–The First Reform
The Indeterminate Sentence and Parole
Probation
The Concept of Delinquency and the Juvenile Court
Criminal Justice Reform–Rhetoric and Reality
Current Issues
Prisons
Parole
Probation
Diversion
Intermediate Sanctions
Abandoning Rehabilitation
Social Work Roles
Treatment Programs Outside the Criminal Justice System
Victim Assistance
Victim-Offender Mediation
A New Frontier for Social Work in Criminal Justice: The Innocence Movement
Police Work as Social Work
Conclusion
Chapter 12
Health Care
Definitions of Health and Illness
Statistical Picture of Health Care
Health and Socioeconomic Factors
Focus on Diversity Diabetes among the Oglala Souix
Dynamics of Health Care
History of Health Care
The Rise of Scientific Medicine
Medical Social Work
Health Care in the 1960s and 1970s
Current Issues and Trends
Managed Care
The Business of Health Care
Government Action to Improve Health Care
Perspectives
The Conservative Perspective
The Liberal Perspective
The Radical Perspective
Social Work Roles
Conclusion
Chapter 13
Mental Health and Developmental Disability
Issues in Definition
Definitions of Mental Illness
Mental Illness as the Absence of Mental Health
Mental Illness as Disease
Mental Illness as a Reaction to Life’s Problems
Mental Illness as a Label Assigned by Others
Dynamics of Mental Illness
Psysiological Explanations
Psychological Explanations
Behavioral Explanations
Environmental and Sociological Explanations
Statistical Picture of Mental Illness
Definitions of Developmental Disability
Focus on DiversityRace, Diagnosis, and Commitment
Dynamics of Development Disability
Statistical Picture of Development Disability
Historical Perspectives on Mental Illness
Social Work DestinationsThe Public Hospital, Williamsburg,Virginia
A Closer LookClifford W. Beers, A Mind That Found Itself
A Closer Look The Snake Pit
Historical Perspectives on Developmental Disability
A Closer Look The Jukes and the Kallikaks
Current Issues and Trends
From Institution to Life in the Community
Community Services for Those with Mental Retardation
Advocacy and Consumer Organizations for the Mentally Ill
Stigma and Mental Illness
Special Populations in the Field of Mental Health
Perspectives
The Conserative Perspective
The Liberal Perspective
The Radical Perspective
Social Work Roles in Mental Health and Developmental Disability
A Closer Look“When Things Were Darkest, Peers Helped:
Conclusion
Chapter 14
Housing, Homelessness, and Community Development
Definitions of the Problem
Actors in the U.S. Housing Situation
Builders
Developers
Bankers
Insurance Companies
Realtors
Landlords
Community Groups
Advocacy Organizations
Research
Statistical Picture of Housing
Dynamics of Housing
Commodity or Right?
Residential Segregation
History of Housing
Housing Trends from the Mid 1800s through the 1920s
The Origins of Housing Policy
Housing Policy after the New Deal
“Urban Renewal”
The Age of HUD
A Closer LookThe Destruction of Pruitt-Igoe
Mortgage Meltdown
A Closer LookMortgage Talk
Obama Begins
Current Issues and Trends
Homelessness
Community Responses
Design
Triage
Sprawl
A Closer LookThe Language of Sprawl
Community Development
Gender and Household Stereotypes
The Retreat from Public Life
Social Work Destinations
Social Work and Community Development
Renewing Civility
Perspectives
The Conservative Perspective
The Liberal Perspective
The Radical Perspective
Social Work Roles
Chapter 15
Aging
Definitions of Aging
Statistical Picture of Aging
Living Arrangements
Income
Health
Government Expenditures for the Elderly
Summary
Dynamics: Causes and Effects of Aging
Biological Theories
Social Psychological Theories
Sociological Theories of Aging
Focus on DiversityMen and Aging
History of Aging in America
Current Issues and Trends
Government Programs for Older Americans: Can they Be Maintained?
Long-Term Care
Community Services for the Aging: Problems of Coordination
Ageism and Advocacy
A Closer Look“Harassing the Eldlerly” by Karen DeCrow
Perspectives
The Conservative Perspective
The Liberal Perspective
The Radical Perspective
Social Work Roles
Conclusion

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