Test Bank for General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications 10th Edition Ralph Petrucci

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Test Bank for General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications 10th Edition Ralph Petrucci

Table Of Contents

1 MATTER–ITS PROPERTIES AND MEASUREMENT
1-1 The Scientific Method
1-2 Properties of Matter
1-3 Classification of Matter
1-4 Measurement of Matter: SI (Metric) Units
1-5 Density and Percent Composition: Their Use in Problem Solving
1-6 Uncertainties in Scientific Measurements
1-7 Significant Figures
2 ATOMS AND THE ATOMIC THEORY
2-1 Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory
2-2 Electrons and Other Discoveries in Atomic Physics
2-3 The Nuclear Atom
2-4 Chemical Elements
2-5 Atomic Mass
2-6 Introduction to the Periodic Table
2-7 The Concept of the Mole and the Avogadro Constant
2-8 Using the Mole Concept in Calculations
3 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
3-1 Types of Chemical Compounds and their Formulas
3-2 The Mole Concept and Chemical Compounds
3-3 Composition of Chemical Compounds
3-4 Oxidation States: A Useful Tool in Describing Chemical Compounds
3-5 Naming Compounds: Organic and Inorganic Compounds
3-6 Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds
3-7 Names and Formulas of Organic Compounds
4 CHEMICAL REACTIONS
4-1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations
4-2 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry
4-3 Chemical Reactions in Solution
4-4 Determining the Limiting Reactant
4-5 Other Practical Matters in Reaction Stoichiometry
5 INTRODUCTION TO REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
5-1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions
5-2 Precipitation Reactions
5-3 Acid-Base Reactions
5-4 Oxidation-Reduction: Some General Principles
5-5 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
5-6 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
5-7 Stoichiometry of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Titrations
6 GASES
6-1 Properties of Gases: Gas Pressure
6-2 The Simple Gas Laws
6-3 Combining the Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation and the General Gas Equation
6-4 Applications of the Ideal Gas Equation
6-5 Gases in Chemical Reactions
6-6 Mixtures of Gases
6-7 Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
6-8 Gas Properties Relating to the Kinetic-Molecular Theory
6-9 Nonideal (Real) Gases
7 THERMOCHEMISTRY
7-1 Getting Started: Some Terminology
7-2 Heat
7-3 Heats of Reaction and Calorimetry
7-4 Work
7-5 The First Law of Thermodynamics
7-6 Heats of Reaction: ?U and ?H
7-7 Indirect Determination of ?H: Hess’s Law
7-8 Standard Enthalpies of Formation
7-9 Fuels as Sources of Energy
8 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS
8-1 Electromagnetic Radiation
8-2 Atomic Spectra
8-3 Quantum Theory
8-4 The Bohr Atom
8-5 Two Ideas Leading to a New Quantum Mechanics
8-6 Wave Mechanics
8-7 Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals
8-8 Interpreting and Representing the Orbitals of the Hydrogen Atom
8-9 Electron Spin: A Fourth Quantum Number
8-10 Multielectron Atoms
8-11 Electron Configurations
8-12 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
9 THE PERIODIC TABLE AND SOME ATOMIC PROPERTIES
9-1 Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
9-2 Metals and Nonmetals and their Ions
9-3 Sizes of Atoms and Ions
9-4 Ionization Energy
9-5 Electron Affinity
9-6 Magnetic Properties
9-7 Periodic Properties of the Elements
10 CHEMICAL BONDING I: BASIC CONCEPTS
10-1 Lewis Theory: An Overview
10-2 Covalent Bonding: An Introduction
10-3 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electrostatic Potential Maps
10-4 Writing Lewis Structures
10-5 Resonance
10-6 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
10-7 Shapes of Molecules
10-8 Bond Order and Bond Lengths
10-9 Bond Energies
11 CHEMICAL BONDING II: ADDITIONAL ASPECTS
11-1 What a Bonding Theory Should Do
11-2 Introduction to the Valence-Bond Method
11-3 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
11-4 Multiple Covalent Bonds
11-5 Molecular Orbital Theory
11-6 Delocalized Electrons: Bonding in the Benzene Molecule
11-7 Bonding in Metals
11-8 Some Unresolved Issues; Can Electron Charge-Density Plots Help?
12 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
12-1 Intermolecular Forces
12-2 Some Properties of Liquids
12-3 Some Properties of Solids
12-4 Phase Diagrams
12-5 Network Covalent Solids and Ionic Solids
12-6 Crystal Structures
12-7 Energy Changes in the Formation of Ionic Crystals
13 SOLUTIONS AND THEIR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
13-1 Types of Solutions: Some Terminology
13-2 Solution Concentration
13-3 Intermolecular Forces and the Solution Process
13-4 Solution Formation and Equilibrium
13-5 Solubilities of Gases
13-6 Vapor Pressures of Solutions
13-7 Osmotic Pressure
13-8 Freezing-Point Depression and Boiling-Point Elevation of Nonelectrolyte Solutions
13-9 Solutions of Electrolytes
13-10 Colloidal Mixtures
14 CHEMICAL KINETICS
14-1 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
14-2 Measuring Reaction Rates
14-3 Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rates: The Rate Law
14-4 Zero-Order Reactions
14-5 First-Order Reactions
14-6 Second-Order Reactions
14-7 Reaction Kinetics: A Summary
14-8 Theoretical Models for Chemical Kinetics
14-9 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates
14-10 Reaction Mechanisms
14-11 Catalysis
15 PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
15-1 Dynamic Equilibrium
15-2 The Equilibrium Constant Expression
15-3 Relationships Involving Equilibrium Constants
15-4 The Magnitude of an Equilibrium Constant
15-5 The Reaction Quotient, Q: Predicting The Direction of Net Change
15-6 Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Châtelier’s Principle
15-7 Equilibrium Calculations: Some Illustrative Examples
16 ACIDS AND BASES
16-1 Arrhenius Theory: A Brief Review
16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
16-3 Self-Ionization of Water and the pH Scale
16-4 Strong Acids and Strong Bases
16-5 Weak Acids and Weak Bases
16-6 Polyprotic Acids
16-7 Ions as Acids and Bases
16-8 Molecular Structure and Acid-Base Behavior
16-9 Lewis Acids and Bases
17 ADDITIONAL ASPECTS OF ACID—BASE EQUILIBRIA
17-1 Common-Ion Effect in Acid-Base Equilibria
17-2 Buffer Solutions
17-3 Acid-Base Indicators
17-4 Neutralization Reactions and Titration Curves
17-5 Solutions of Salts of Polyprotic Acids
17-6 Acid-Base Equilibrium Calculations: A Summary
18 SOLUBILITY AND COMPLEX-ION EQUILIBRIA
18-1 Solubility Product Constant, Ksp
18-2 Relationship Between Solubility and Ksp
18-3 Common-Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria
18-4 Limitations of the Ksp Concept
18-5 Criteria for Precipitation and its Completeness
18-6 Fractional Precipitation
18-7 Solubility and pH
18-8 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions
18-9 Qualitative Cation Analysis
19 SPONTANEOUS CHANGE: ENTROPY AND Gibbs ENERGY
19-1 Spontaneity: The Meaning of Spontaneous Change
19-2 The Concept of Entropy
19-3 Evaluating Entropy and Entropy Changes
19-4 Criteria for Spontaneous Change: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
19-5 Standard Gibbs Energy Change, ?G°
19-6 Gibbs Energy Change and Equilibrium
19-7 ?G° and K as Functions of Temperature
19-8 Coupled Reactions
20 ELECTROCHEMISTRY
20-1 Electrode Potentials and their Measurement
20-2 Standard Electrode Potentials
20-3 Ecell, ?G, and K
20-4 Ecell as a Function of Concentrations
20-5 Batteries: Producing Electricity Through Chemical Reactions
20-6 Corrosion: Unwanted Voltaic Cells
20-7 Electrolysis: Causing Nonspontaneous Reactions to Occur
20-8 Industrial Electrolysis Processes
21 CHEMISTRY OF THE MAIN-GROUP ELEMENTS I: GROUPS 1, 2, 13, AND 14
21-1 Periodic Trends and Charge Density
21-2 Group 1: The Alkali Metals
21-3 Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals
21-4 Group 13: The Boron Family
21-5 Group 14: The Carbon Family
22 CHEMISTRY OF THE MAIN-GROUP ELEMENTS II: GROUPS 18, 17, 16, 15, AND HYDROGEN
22-1 Periodic Trends in Bonding
22-2 Group 18: The Noble Gases
22-3 Group 17: The Halogens
22-4 Group 16: The Oxygen Family
22-5 Group 15: The Nitrogen Family
22-6 Hydrogen: A Unique Element
23 THE TRANSITION ELEMENTS
23-1 General Properties
23-2 Principles of Extractive Metallurgy
23-3 Metallurgy of Iron and Steel
23-4 First-Row Transition Metal Elements: Scandium to Manganese
23-5 The Iron Triad: Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel
23-6 Group 11: Copper, Silver, and Gold
23-7 Group 12: Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury
23-8 Lanthanides
23-9 High-Temperature Superconductors
24 COMPLEX IONS AND COORDINATION COMPOUNDS
24-1 Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds: An Overview
24-2 Ligands
24-3 Nomenclature
24-4 Isomerism
24-5 Bonding in Complex Ions: Crystal Field Theory
24-6 Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds and Crystal Field Theory
24-7 Color and the Colors of Complexes
24-8 Aspects of Complex-Ion Equilibria
24-9 Acid-Base Reactions of Complex Ions
24-10 Some Kinetic Considerations
24-11 Applications of Coordination Chemistry
25 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
25-1 Radioactivity
25-2 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Isotopes
25-3 Nuclear Reactions and Artificially Induced Radioactivity
25-4 Transuranium Elements
25-5 Rate of Radioactive Decay
25-6 Energetics of Nuclear Reactions
25-7 Nuclear Stability
25-8 Nuclear Fission
25-9 Nuclear Fusion
25-10 Effect of Radiation on Matter
25-11 Applications of Radioisotopes
26 STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
26-1 Organic Compounds and Structures: An Overview
26-2 Alkanes
26-3 Cycloalkanes
26-4 Stereoisomerism in Organic Compounds
26-5 Alkenes and Alkynes
26-6 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
26-7 Organic Compounds Containing Functional Groups
26-8 From Molecular Formula to Molecular Structure
27 REACTIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
27-1 Organic Reactions: An Introduction
27-2 Organic Acids and Bases
27-3 Introduction to Substitution Reactions
27-4 Introduction to Elimination Reactions
27-5 Reactions of Alcohols
27-6 Introduction to Addition Reactions: Reactions of Alkenes
27-7 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
27-8 Nitration: Substitution of ?H with ?NO2
27-9 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives: The Addition—Elimination Mechanism
27-10 Reactions of Alkanes
27-11 Polymers and Polymerization Reactions
27-12 Synthesis of Organic Compounds
28 CHEMISTRY OF THE LIVING STATE
28-1 Chemical Structure of Living Matter: An Overview
28-2 Lipids
28-3 Carbohydrates
28-4 Proteins
28-5 Aspects of Metabolism
28-6 Nucleic Acids
APPENDIXES
A Mathematical Operations
B Some Basic Physical Concepts
C SI Units
D Data Tables:
Table D.1 Ground-State Electron Configurations
Table D.2 Thermodynamic Properties of Substances at 298.15 K
Table D.3 Equilibrium Constants
Table D.4 Standard Electrode (Reduction) Potentials at 25ÚC
Table D.5 Isotopic Masses and their Abundance
E Concept Maps
F Glossary
G Answers to Concept Assessment Questions

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