Test bank for Criminal Behavior A Psychological Approach 11th Edition Curt R. Bartol

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Test bank for Criminal Behavior A Psychological Approach 11th Edition Curt R. Bartol

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Criminal Behavior 1

Chapter Objectives 1

Theories of Crime 2

Theoretical Perspectives on Human Nature 4

Disciplinary Perspectives in Criminology 6

Sociological Criminology 7

Psychological Criminology 8

Box 1-1: Hate or Bias Crimes 8

Psychiatric Criminology 10

Defining and Measuring Crime 12

Uniform Crime Reporting System 12

Box 1-2: The Problem of Internet-Facilitated Crime 17

Self-Report Studies 19

Victimization Surveys 21

Juvenile Delinquency 23

Recap: Defining Crime and Delinquency 24

Summary and Conclusions 26

Key Concepts 27 • Review Questions 27

Chapter 2 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Developmental Risk Factors 28

Chapter Objectives 28

Cumulative Risk Model 29

Developmental Cascade Model 30

Social Environment Risk Factors 32

Poverty 32

Peer Rejection and Association with Antisocial Peers 33

Preschool Experiences 36

After-School Care 37

Academic Failure 37

Parental and Family Risk Factors 38

Single-Parent Households 38

Parental Styles and Practices 39

Parental Monitoring 42

Box 2-1: Monitoring, Middle School, and Family Relationships 42

Influence of Siblings 44

Parental Psychopathology 44

Psychological Risk Factors 45

Lack of Attachment 45

Lack of Empathy 46

Cognitive and Language Deficiencies 48

Intelligence and Delinquency 49

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 51

Box 2-2: ADHD: Which Treatment to Use? 52

ADHD and Criminal Behavior 53

Conduct Disorder 54

Oppositional Defiant Disorder 55

Summary and Conclusions 56

Key Concepts 58 • Review Questions 58

Chapter 3 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Biological Factors 59

Chapter Objectives 59

Genetics and Antisocial Behavior 60

Behavior Genetics 60

Studies of Twins 61

The Twins’ Early Development Study 63

Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development 64

Adoption Studies 64

Molecular Genetics 66

Psychophysiological Factors 66

Temperament 67

Environmental Risk Factors 70

Neurotoxins 70

Lead 71

Cadmium 72

Manganese 73

Mercury (Methlymercury) 73

Protective Properties of Micronutrients 74

Prenatal and Postnatal Malnutrition 75

Box 3-1: Malnutrition in Infants 75

Nicotine, Alcohol, and Drug Exposure 76

Traumatic Brain Injury 78

Brain Development Abnormalities 79

Hormones and Neurotransmitters 80

Neuropsychological Factors 80

Summary and Conclusions 81

Key Concepts 82 • Review Questions 82

Chapter 4 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Learning and Situational Factors 83

Chapter Objectives 83

Behaviorism 85

Skinner’s Theory of Behavior 86

Behaviorism as a Method of Science 86

Behaviorism as a Perspective of Human Nature 87

Skinnerian Concepts 87

Operant Learning and Crime 88

Social Learning 89

Expectancy Theory 90

Imitational Aspects of Social Learning 91

Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory 92

Frustration-Induced Criminality 94

The Socialized and Individual Offender 94

Frustration-Induced Riots 95

Frustration and Crime 96

Situational Instigators and Regulators of Criminal Behavior 96

Authority as an Instigator of Criminal Behavior 97

Box 4-1: National Security Interrogations—Psychology’s Role 100

Deindividuation 101

The Stanford Prison Experiment 103

The BBC Prison Study 104

Deindividuation and Crowd Violence 105

The Bystander Effect 106

Box 4-2: Do Security Cameras Affect Bystander Apathy? 108

Moral Disengagement 109

Summary and Conclusions 110

Key Concepts 111 • Review Questions 112

Chapter 5 Human Aggression and Violence 113

Chapter Objectives 113

Defining Aggression 114

Hostile and Instrumental Aggression 115

Box 5-1: Aggression in Recent High Profile Cases 115

Interpretation by Victim 117

Theoretical Perspectives on Aggression 117

Psychoanalytical/Psychodynamic Viewpoint 118

Ethological Viewpoints 118

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis 119

Weapons Effect 120

Cognitive-Neoassociation Model 121

Excitation Transfer Theory 121

Displaced Aggression Theory 122

Social Learning Factors in Aggression and Violence 122

Modeling 123

Observation Modeling 124

Cognitive Models of Aggression 125

Cognitive Scripts Model 125

Hostile Attribution Model 125

Box 5-2: Dealing With Anger—What Works and for Whom? 128

The General Aggression Model 129

I³ Theory 130

Overt and Covert Acts of Aggression 130

Reactive and Proactive Forms of Aggression 131

Gender Differences in Aggression 132

Effects of Media Violence 133

Copycat Crime or Contagion Effect 136

Box 5-3: Copycat Gamers 137

Summary and Conclusions 139

Key Concepts 140 • Review Questions 141

Chapter 6 Juvenile Delinquency 142

Chapter Objectives 142

Definitions of Delinquency 143

Legal Definition 143

Social Definition 144

Psychological Definitions 144

Nature and Extent of Juvenile Offending 145

Status Offenses 147

The Serious Delinquent 148

Gender Differences in Juvenile Offending 148

Developmental Theories of Delinquency 151

Moffitt’s Developmental Theory 152

Box 6-1: Emerging Adulthood as a Developmental Stage 154

Steinberg’s Dual Systems Model 157

Coercion Developmental Theory 158

Callous-Unemotional Trait Theory 160

Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment of Juvenile Offending 161

Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies 161

Characteristics of Successful Programs 162

Box 6-2: Gender Responsive Programming 163

Classification of Prevention and Treatment Programs 165

Primary Prevention 167

Selective or Secondary Prevention 168

Box 6-3: The Fast Track Experiment 169

Treatment Approaches 170

Summary and Conclusions 175

Key Concepts 177 • Review Questions 177

Chapter 7 Psychopathy 178

Chapter Objectives 178

What is a Psychopath? 179

Antisocial Personality Disorder 179

Examples of Primary Psychopaths 180

Behavioral Descriptions 181

Behavioral Characteristics 182

Psychological Testing Differences 183

Psychopaths and Mental Disorders 183

Psychopaths and Suicide 183

Other Principal Traits 184

The Criminal Psychopath 185

Prevalence of Criminal Psychopathy 186

Offending Patterns of Criminal Psychopaths 186

Recidivism of Criminal Psychopaths 187

Psychological Measures of Psychopathy 187

The PCL-R 188

Criticisms of the PCL-R 189

Box 7-1: Corporate Psychopaths 189

Core Factors of Psychopathy 190

The Two-Factor Position 190

The Three-Factor Position 191

The Four-Factor Model 191

The Boldness Factor 191

The Meanness Factor 192

The Female Psychopath 192

Racial/Ethnic Differences 193

Juvenile Psychopathy 194

Can Juvenile Psychopathy Be Identified? 194

Box 7-2: Treating Adolescents with Psychopathic Features 195

Ethical Considerations 196

Measures of Juvenile Psychopathy 197

Neurobiological Factors and Psychopathy 198

Genetic Factors 198

Neuropsychology and Psychopathy 198

Central Nervous System Differences 199

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Research 202

Autonomic Nervous System Research 203

The Dual-Process Model of Psychopathy 206

Childhood of the Psychopath 207

Treatment of Criminal Psychopaths 208

Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychopathic

Summary and Conclusions 210

Key Concepts 212 • Review Questions 212

Chapter 8 Crime and Mental Disorders 213

Chapter Objectives 213

Defining Mental Illness 216

The DSM 216

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders 217

Bipolar Disorder 218

Major Depressive Disorder 219

Antisocial Personality Disorder 219

Box 8-1: Does Serious Mental Disorder Cause Crime? 220

Competency and Criminal Responsibility 221

Incompetency to Stand Trial 221

Criminal Responsibility 224

Insanity Standards 227

Guilty but Mentally Ill 230

Unique Defenses and Conditions 231

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 231

Dissociation 233

Dissociative Identity Disorder 234

Dissociative Amnesia 235

Mental Disorder and Violence 236

Research on the Violence of the Mentally Disordered 237

The MacArthur Research Network 238

Police and the Mentally Disordered 239

Mentally Disordered Inmates 239

Dangerousness and the Assessment of Risk 241

The Tarasoff Case 241

Violence Risk Factors and Measures 243

Summary and Conclusions 245

Key Concepts 246 • Review Questions 246

Chapter 9 Homicide, Assault, and Intimate Partner and Family Violence 247

Chapter Objectives 247

Definitions 249

Criminal Homicide 250

Aggravated Ass

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